Skin lighteners can also be called skin whiteners. They are products that work by reducing a pigment of the skin called melanin. Melanin plays a key role in giving the skin its color. They have a combination of active ingredients that reduce the amount of melanin in the skin when applied. People could use this product to treat skin problem such as freckles, discoloration related to hormones, age spots, acne scars or to naturally lighten dark skin to give it a brighter look than it was initially(Draelos). Skin lighters have been widely used in the modern world since people want to modify their looks and skin color.
Most of the people today are using skin lighteners to get a fair looking skin color. Like every other thing, skin lighteners have benefit and side effects too. While purchasing skin lighteners, it is always advisable to check on the ingredients for some components are more likely to cause severe adverse effects than the benefits. Some skin lighteners have dangerous substances whose chemical component contain mercury and other heavy metals. Therefore it requires serious scrutiny before applying skin lighteners as some may cause severe challenges to their users(Olumide).
In this article, you will find useful information about skin lighteners. The various skin lighteners are explicitly explained below. So from the article, you will have a know-how on how skin whiteners work and their adverse side effects as well.
Effects of Arbutin
Arbutin is an ingredient naturally extracted from bearberry plant. This component is also found in Bergenia, crass folia, wheat and the skin of a pear. It can also be produced synthetically in laboratories by the action of age to mogul code on hydroquinone(Lim et al.). This ingredient is commonly used as an antioxidant and therefore used in most anti-aging products. Arbutin inhibits the activity of enzyme tyrosinase that is responsible for melanin formation. Melanin is an element of skin that protect it against harmful UV and UVB radiation emitted by the sun.
Arbutin is an effective treatment and eliminator of skin problems such as dance scars and dry facial skin. Besides this benefit, Arbutin has side effects which include.
Arbutin can break down to hydroquinone while in the body which can lead to intestinal cancer-related conditions.
When used in large amounts, Arbutin can cause skin irritation that can consequently cause skin acne
Effects of Vitamin B3
It is also known as Niacinamide. It is beneficial to skin lightener when applied externally and orally. Vitamin B3 has an anti-aging and rejuvenating effect. Because of its ability to treat hyperpigmentation, vitamin B3 fades age spots, lightens and whitens the skin. To add to its goodness, this product does not react with heat and light(“Vitamin B3 (Niacin)”). To get the best out of it, you must wear sunscreen every day because it has an inhibitory effect.
Unlike other skin lighteners, vitamin B3 is a number one solution to pigmentation control without harmful side effects. Vitamin B3 increases the level of ceramide and fatty acid levels hence hydration of the skin. Using this product gives you a softer surface which is smooth and less prone to irritation, sensitivity, and redness.
Effects of Aloesin
This is a moderately high molecular weight C glycosylated chromosome which is naturally derived from Aloe Vera. Aloesin inhibits tyrosine to 3, 4 sighs Roxy phenylalanine and oxidation of DUPA to dopaquinone and also melanin production(Jin et al.). Aloesin inhibits tyrosine activity. This component blocks pigmentation and inhibits UV induced pigmentation, and therefore it is suitable for preventing UV induced melanin formation and also suitable for cosmetic or therapeutic purposes.
Most of the skin whiteners, herbal and chemically produced, have the power to inhibit melanocytes which are responsible for pigmentation. They temper with tyrosine which is an enzyme responsible for the production of melanin. When orally used or externally applied they interfere with melanin production process and by making melanocytes inactive or even damaging the melanocytes .melanin is responsible for protecting the skin from harmful UV and UVB radiation. If the melanocytes are destroyed, it means melanin will not be fully produced hence leading to white patches.
Skin whiteners inhibit melanocytes production and tyrosine which are responsible for melanin production, and this makes melanin to be produced in low quantity. Thus it does not exhibit its usual color hence it appears lightly causing a light color of the skin.
Effects of Astaxanthin
Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid belonging to a larger compound called terpenes. The terpenes are composed of five carbons including isopentenyl, dimethylallyl diphosphate. Astaxanthin is extracted from certain marine animals and plants especially some algae species. Astaxanthin is deemed to be one of the most powerful antioxidants. The common benefits of a to astaxanthin to health include; improving vision, reduce wrinkles and age spots, reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, increases energy, improve skin softness, reduce sun damage on the skin, improve endurance and exercise recovery. Despite the numerous benefits of astaxanthin in improving the health and general appearance of the skin especially the bright colored pigmentation, they also lead to side effects that may cause health hazards to pregnant and lactating mothers. Increased skin pigmentation is the primary cause of the astaxanthin. The issue of toxicity also raises the use of this pigmentation component. Astaxanthin intake may also have the following adverse effects which range from decreased semen quantity during sexual intercourse, importance, depressed moods and even reduced libido.
Effects of Centella
Centella is an important medicinal herb widely used to enhance skin whitening and bleaching. Centella is rich in therapeutic action on the skin of users. Centella plays a crucial role in wound healing and treatment of various skin related conditions. Centella belongs to Apiaceae family and is abundantly available in India. Centella is an odorless and tasteless plant. Other medicinal uses are purifying blood and treating high blood pressure. Asiaticosides are richly available in Centella. This is the critical component that makes Centella very useful on healing wounds and skin infections. In spite of the many benefits, there are effects of the element which may include; problems to the liver, stomach pain, loss of appetite and low fever.
Effects of Vitamin C
The quest for a lighter skin has led people from all walks of life to resort to bleaching their skins. Women, especially from Africa and Asia, have a great desire to improve their skin color, smoothness and enhance spotless faces. Through this desire, there has been an influx order and use of skin lighteners in the market due to ever-increasing demand.Vitamin C is also known as Ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is a crucial component that aids in forming collagen in bodies of animals. With that characteristic, Vitamin C is crucial in repairing tissues that are damaged in our day to day activities. Vitamin C when used makes the skin to heal faster and scar less giving the skin a smooth and supple touch. Vitamin C works by inhibiting tyrosine enzyme hence reducing the production of melanin in the skin. Following the lesser melanin production in the body, the skin is given a bright pigmentation which contributes to lighting the skin. Another benefit of Vitamin C is protecting the skin from sun exposure. Vitamin C works by neutralizing the reactive oxygen species hence protecting one from excessive amounts of sunlight. Vitamin C plays a significant role in lightening the skin and therefore is a surefire way to help those who want to have lighter skins.
Effects of Vitamin E
Undoubtedly, the need for skin lightening and bleaching has had an upsurge in this century. Vitamin E is used in this quest. Vitamin E is a strong antioxidant, and that’s why it does a significant job of whitening the skin and giving a person a brighter look, smoother skin and above all a supple skin. This does a great deal in boosting the self-esteem of people as they may become more attractive. Surveys have shown that Vitamin E does not only make the skin lighter but also makes it smoother and supple. Moreover, Vitamin E does magic on one’s skin. Vitamin E enhances cellular healing. Since Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant, it reduces toxicity level in the skin. Removing of toxins from the skin is important because it gives the skin cells space and conducive environment to recuperate and survive to do their job. Vitamin E also prevents skin aging and prevent wrinkles. Furthermore, Vitamin E removes free radicals from the skin making the skin to regenerate new cells which give the skin a lighter look. The absence of free radicals from the skin makes people have a healthier skin. The only negative impact of Vitamin E is when an overdose is taken. An overdose is dangerous because Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin which is difficult to excrete from the body. High dosage can cause diarrhea, stomach cramps, fatigue, weakness, rashes, blurred vision. This also increases chances of prostate cancer in some men.
That aside, it is also an obvious truth that some herbal and chemical whiteners can under stimulate melanocytes. This may render them inactive, leading to white scars. Both chemical and herbal whiteners may fail significantly to stimulate melanocytes. Melanocyte generating hormones are hormones which cause the increase in production of melanocytes. They cause an increase in melanin pigment. Melanocyte contains the cellular components for manufacturing melanin. The melanocyte is also a neuroectodermally derived cell that is a core ingredient in the production of melanin. Dark skin is a result of more melanocytes. Skin whiteners are therefore aimed at reducing the melanocytes in the body in their quest to achieve a lighter skin color. Therefore lightening the skin works with a rationale for significantly reducing production of melanocytes in the body.
Skin whitening chemicals work in bleaching the skin. There is a great need for minimal melanogenesis suppression and disturbance. Skin whitening substances work by reducing the content of melanin on the surface. Skin whitening substances may contain dangerous components like mercury. As mercury is well known heavy metal, it may lead to hazardous health conditions like cancer. Mercury is extremely toxic and poisonous and may lead to different health risks ranging from kidney damage to skin damage. Skin whiteners should be taken with great caution since some have poisonous chemical substances which will cause more harm than good to users. Melanogenesis is the process of reproducing melanin in the cells and is important. Skin whiteners affect the production of melanin affecting the normality of the body functions, especially in the skin functions.
Most importantly, tyrosine involvement in melanin production is key in whitening the skin. Even though some chemicals from herbs and chemicals found in scar products inhibit tyrosine greatly. Tyrosine is responsible for oxidative procedures in the synthesis of melanin. It is melanin that gives the skin color. The darker the skin, the more the melanin. It is therefore attributed to being the reason why black people have a dark color due to the sufficiency of melanin. Mostly, lotions and gels are used as skin lighteners. Such skin lightening components are envisaged at blocking some amount of melanin. Skin lighteners affect the production of melanin by blocking and inhibiting tyrosine. As tyrosine is responsible for producing melanocyte, use of skin lighteners change it leading to a reduction in the produced melanin.
In conclusion, skin whitening and bleaching which is greatly pursued by a large number of people in the modern world has numerous effects that may lead to life-long health hazards. As a warning, people should be advised against not using all means to improve their looks whereas endangering their lives to greater threats to health(Lim et al.). Yes, some may argue that looks, smoother skin, supple skin are important. Undeniably, simple looks do matter, but it is not worth risking for what may end up causing greater danger to the health of individuals. Skin whiteners especially the chemical whiteners are to be refrained from entirely since the health of individuals is at stake. Even as a flawless and spotless face is sought, let it not be a motivation for the use of dangerous skin whiteners.