skin permeability

Ingredients that affect and enhance skin permeability

Studies over time have proved that the human skin is impermeable to inorganic particles. It was believed that the only way to increase the permeability of the skin was to alter the mechanical stressors. However, with new technology, there are better ways to increase the permeability of the human skin. One of the very common examples is the use of ultraviolet radiation. Other methods in use are tape stripping, abrasion of the skin and use of chemicals for skin enhancement.

This article focuses on the use of chemical enhancement for increasing the human skin’s permeability. Chemically enhancing the skin’s permeability is a process in which chemicals like dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), oleic acid and many others are applied to the skin’s surface.

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organic sulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. It comes as a colorless liquid. It is an important polar solvent that dissolves both polar and non-polar compounds. Its boiling point is relatively high compared to other solvents of its nature. It is widely claimed that users of DMSO perceive a garlic-like taste in the mouth after using products that contain it.


As early as 1963, one of the most important benefits of DMSO was discovered by the Oregon Health & Science University Medical School team. The discovery in the field of medicine created a wide platform for its application. In the early days, it was used as an analgesic, as an anti-inflammatory, and as an antioxidant. In modern medicine, increasing the permeability of the skin has enhanced treatment of diseases like cancer. Increasing the permeability of skin allows nanoparticles to penetrate and target cancer cells

DMSO is mostly used nowadays for pain relief. It is a safer product that steroids and it is better than aspirin as an anti-inflammatory product too. It is administered on the skin (topically). Not only is it safe for use, it comes with the good benefits narcotics usage like loss of sensation and drowsiness. Unlike other products, DMSO is not such that the body develops resistance to it requiring more dosage for every use. A little is enough as it goes a long way.

Stroke accounts for over 3million disabilities directly or indirectly and is the third largest killer in the US. Applying DMSO at the early stages has shown to dissolve the clot that causes the stroke, thus restoring circulation and avoiding paralysis. It is advised to administered immediately usually in the first few hours intravenously. Some doctors believe DMSO should be in the first aid kit in the ambulance. So that it can be given to the patient on the way to the hospital. Its ability to stop a stroke should not be overlooked as it is very important.

Other cases where DMSO has been applied include – Burns, Bursitis, Frostbite, Frozen Shoulder, Gouty Arthritis, Haemorrhoids, Interstitial Cystitis, Muscle Spasms, Including Night Time Muscle Cramps, Neuritis, Arthritis, Peyronie’s Disease, Strains, Sprains, Bruising, Bone Fractures, Whiplash and Other Athletic Injuries.

Dangers and FDA status

Testing of DMSO a wood-derived solvent, as a drug began in the early 1960’s, but was halted in 1965 after experiments in animals indicated that it had adverse effects on the eyes. In the years after, experiments resume ensuring that patients were safe.

It is approved for medical use in dogs and horses and approved for treating interstitial cystitis, a bladder condition in humans. Notwithstanding, the FDA did not grant approval for its use in topical (skin) use in humans. For other purposes, such as arthritic conditions of joints, bursitis and scleroderma tests are ongoing. In cases of treatment of mental illness, spinal cord injury and brain trauma, there are no definite conclusions from test results.

Know side effects include nausea, headache, and rashes on the skin. Also, due to the nature of the product as a solvent, impure DMSO can deliver harmful substances into the bloodstream. The use of DMSO in treating crippling pain from arthritis and bursitis may be justifiable but not its use for minor pains and aches. 

Dimethyl Isosorbide (DMI) is a high purity solvent. It allows for an effective delivery of active ingredients in personal care products into the body through the skin. Examples of products where DMI is used include facial treatment products, sunless tanners, make-up removers and a couple of others. Unlike DMSO, it is safe for use on the face and it lowers skin irritation.

Propylene Glycol’s prolonged contact with the human face is not irritating. However, undiluted propylene glycol is minimally irritating to the eye, producing slight conjunctivitis. The symptoms dissipate once the exposure is removed. Also, inhalation can have side effects on some individuals however, it is safe to inhale.

Isopropyl myristate is used in cosmetic preparations for products that need to be absorbed properly into the skin. It is currently used against head lice. Also in perfume and mouthwash. In mouthwash, it removes bacteria from the oral cavity.


cosmetic chemical preservatives

Cosmetics are not a modern invention; ancient women used beautifying products such as Kohl and poisonous lead carbonate for facial beautification. Cosmetics are one of the most demanded products; they come in different forms such as facial creams, mascara, powder, eyeliners amongst others.

Cosmetics require preservatives to last long; this is why they contain preserving agents. A preservative is a synthetic or natural ingredient added to products such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and food to prevent spoilage, damage, and degradation. Cosmetic companies are one of those sectors in need of preservatives because of the nature of products they produce. Cosmetic are preserved with both natural and synthetic or chemical preservatives, however, for the purpose of this article, cosmetic chemical preservatives are our major focus.

Cosmetic chemical preservatives are used so products can be produced in large quantity, unlike preservative-free cosmetics which are best manufactured in small quantities and require a special means of storage. Chemical preservatives perform the function of preserving cosmetic because cosmetics are formulated majorly with water-based products; chemical preservatives help in emulsifying the ingredients and give them a good texture.

While they are the most commonly used preservatives in the cosmetic industry, not all chemical preservatives are safe or healthy to use. Cosmetic chemical preservatives include formaldehyde-producing preservatives such as Urea and DMDM hydantoin, parabens, Phenoxyethanol, and ethylhexylglycerin.


Formaldehyde is an organic compound used for several purposes. It is originally used in embalming but its producing agents such as Urea and DMDM hydantoin are used in cosmetics as preservatives. For cosmetics preservation, formaldehyde is slightly altered and called formalin. This way it works as a preservative to prevent contamination of cosmetic products.

Low level of formaldehyde is contained in many cosmetic products, however, when used excessively for cosmetic preservation it is considered as unsafe. Formaldehyde is a chemical that occurs naturally in every living plant and animal, however, exposure to high level of formaldehyde-producing preservatives could cause skin sensitivity, asthma, and cancer. Formaldehyde producing agents can be found in nail hardener, shampoos, glues, makeup, hair gel, lotions, and deodorants.


Parabens are another cosmetic chemical preservative; they are used in cosmetics to protect against the growth of harmful molds and bacteria in order to protect both the consumer and product. Parabens are used in make- up, mascara, moisturizer and hair care products amongst others.

Like other cosmetic chemical preservatives, parabens are also risky when used, parabens could penetrate into the blood because they can be absorbed, metabolized and excreted, hence disrupting the endocrine system. This makes a high dose of parabens dangerous. Parabens have been related to the cause of breast cancer, testicular cancer, and declining sperm count.

Having identified these chemicals and their potential harm, there has been a clamor for alternatives and the commonly asked question is what the alternatives for these chemical containing cosmetics are


One of the best alternatives is phenoxyethanol. It is produced by treating phenol with Ethanol Oxydine. These ingredients might not sound impressive but phenoxyethanol is one of the safest and effective preservatives. Phenoxyethanol is a compound of engineered product that aid in retarding the formation of bacterial growth. While each chemical used in producing it could be harmful when used individually, but when combined together they are a beneficial product.


Phenoxyethanol is not the only safe substitute for cosmetic preservation, ethylhexylglycerin is also another alternative. It is a preservative used instead of parabens; it is almost as effective as parabens, less detrimental and safer for human use.

ethylhexylglycerin is made from glycerin; it is odorless as well as colorless. Ethylexyglycerin prevents natural ingredients in cosmetics from spoiling it also aids in reducing oils and surface tension in cosmetics it can also increase the shelf life of cosmetics.

It is safer because only the right amount of is used as preservation, however; large quantity can be detrimental to health.

Final thoughts

When planning to buy cosmetics products, it is best to watch out for their components to avoid buying ones with preservative that could prove detrimental to your health.


skin whitening

Skin Lighteners

Skin lighteners can also be called skin whiteners. They are products that work by reducing a pigment of the skin called melanin. Melanin plays a key role in giving the skin its color. They have a combination of active ingredients that reduce the amount of melanin in the skin when applied. People could use this product to treat skin problem such as freckles, discoloration related to hormones, age spots, acne scars or to naturally lighten dark skin to give it a brighter look than it was initially(Draelos). Skin lighters have been widely used in the modern world since people want to modify their looks and skin color.

Most of the people today are using skin lighteners to get a fair looking skin color. Like every other thing, skin lighteners have benefit and side effects too. While purchasing skin lighteners, it is always advisable to check on the ingredients for some components are more likely to cause severe adverse effects than the benefits. Some skin lighteners have dangerous substances whose chemical component contain mercury and other heavy metals. Therefore it requires serious scrutiny before applying skin lighteners as some may cause severe challenges to their users(Olumide).

In this article, you will find useful information about skin lighteners. The various skin lighteners are explicitly explained below. So from the article, you will have a know-how on how skin whiteners work and their adverse side effects as well.

Effects of Arbutin

Arbutin is an ingredient naturally extracted from bearberry plant. This component is also found in Bergenia, crass folia, wheat and the skin of a pear. It can also be produced synthetically in laboratories by the action of age to mogul code on hydroquinone(Lim et al.). This ingredient is commonly used as an antioxidant and therefore used in most anti-aging products. Arbutin inhibits the activity of enzyme tyrosinase that is responsible for melanin formation. Melanin is an element of skin that protect it against harmful UV and UVB radiation emitted by the sun.

Arbutin is an effective treatment and eliminator of skin problems such as dance scars and dry facial skin. Besides this benefit, Arbutin has side effects which include.

Arbutin can break down to hydroquinone while in the body which can lead to intestinal cancer-related conditions.

When used in large amounts, Arbutin can cause skin irritation that can consequently cause skin acne

Effects of Vitamin B3

It is also known as Niacinamide. It is beneficial to skin lightener when applied externally and orally. Vitamin B3 has an anti-aging and rejuvenating effect. Because of its ability to treat hyperpigmentation, vitamin B3 fades age spots, lightens and whitens the skin. To add to its goodness, this product does not react with heat and light(“Vitamin B3 (Niacin)”). To get the best out of it, you must wear sunscreen every day because it has an inhibitory effect.

Unlike other skin lighteners, vitamin B3 is a number one solution to pigmentation control without harmful side effects. Vitamin B3 increases the level of ceramide and fatty acid levels hence hydration of the skin. Using this product gives you a softer surface which is smooth and less prone to irritation, sensitivity, and redness.

Effects of Aloesin

This is a moderately high molecular weight C glycosylated chromosome which is naturally derived from Aloe Vera. Aloesin inhibits tyrosine to 3, 4 sighs Roxy phenylalanine and oxidation of DUPA to dopaquinone and also melanin production(Jin et al.). Aloesin inhibits tyrosine activity. This component blocks pigmentation and inhibits UV induced pigmentation, and therefore it is suitable for preventing UV induced melanin formation and also suitable for cosmetic or therapeutic purposes.

Most of the skin whiteners, herbal and chemically produced, have the power to inhibit melanocytes which are responsible for pigmentation. They temper with tyrosine which is an enzyme responsible for the production of melanin. When orally used or externally applied they interfere with melanin production process and by making melanocytes inactive or even damaging the melanocytes .melanin is responsible for protecting the skin from harmful UV and UVB radiation. If the melanocytes are destroyed, it means melanin will not be fully produced hence leading to white patches.

Skin whiteners inhibit melanocytes production and tyrosine which are responsible for melanin production, and this makes melanin to be produced in low quantity. Thus it does not exhibit its usual color hence it appears lightly causing a light color of the skin.

Effects of Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid belonging to a larger compound called terpenes. The terpenes are composed of five carbons including isopentenyl, dimethylallyl diphosphate. Astaxanthin is extracted from certain marine animals and plants especially some algae species. Astaxanthin is deemed to be one of the most powerful antioxidants. The common benefits of a to astaxanthin to health include; improving vision, reduce wrinkles and age spots, reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, increases energy, improve skin softness, reduce sun damage on the skin, improve endurance and exercise recovery. Despite the numerous benefits of astaxanthin in improving the health and general appearance of the skin especially the bright colored pigmentation, they also lead to side effects that may cause health hazards to pregnant and lactating mothers. Increased skin pigmentation is the primary cause of the astaxanthin. The issue of toxicity also raises the use of this pigmentation component. Astaxanthin intake may also have the following adverse effects which range from decreased semen quantity during sexual intercourse, importance, depressed moods and even reduced libido.

Effects of Centella

Centella is an important medicinal herb widely used to enhance skin whitening and bleaching. Centella is rich in therapeutic action on the skin of users. Centella plays a crucial role in wound healing and treatment of various skin related conditions. Centella belongs to Apiaceae family and is abundantly available in India. Centella is an odorless and tasteless plant. Other medicinal uses are purifying blood and treating high blood pressure. Asiaticosides are richly available in Centella. This is the critical component that makes Centella very useful on healing wounds and skin infections. In spite of the many benefits, there are effects of the element which may include; problems to the liver, stomach pain, loss of appetite and low fever.

Effects of Vitamin C

The quest for a lighter skin has led people from all walks of life to resort to bleaching their skins. Women, especially from Africa and Asia, have a great desire to improve their skin color, smoothness and enhance spotless faces. Through this desire, there has been an influx order and use of skin lighteners in the market due to ever-increasing demand.Vitamin C is also known as Ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is a crucial component that aids in forming collagen in bodies of animals. With that characteristic, Vitamin C is crucial in repairing tissues that are damaged in our day to day activities. Vitamin C when used makes the skin to heal faster and scar less giving the skin a smooth and supple touch.  Vitamin C works by inhibiting tyrosine enzyme hence reducing the production of melanin in the skin. Following the lesser melanin production in the body, the skin is given a bright pigmentation which contributes to lighting the skin. Another benefit of Vitamin C is protecting the skin from sun exposure. Vitamin C works by neutralizing the reactive oxygen species hence protecting one from excessive amounts of sunlight. Vitamin C plays a significant role in lightening the skin and therefore is a surefire way to help those who want to have lighter skins.

Effects of Vitamin E

Undoubtedly, the need for skin lightening and bleaching has had an upsurge in this century.  Vitamin E is used in this quest. Vitamin E is a strong antioxidant, and that’s why it does a significant job of whitening the skin and giving a person a brighter look, smoother skin and above all a supple skin. This does a great deal in boosting the self-esteem of people as they may become more attractive. Surveys have shown that Vitamin E does not only make the skin lighter but also makes it smoother and supple. Moreover, Vitamin E does magic on one’s skin.  Vitamin E enhances cellular healing. Since Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant, it reduces toxicity level in the skin. Removing of toxins from the skin is important because it gives the skin cells space and conducive environment to recuperate and survive to do their job. Vitamin E also prevents skin aging and prevent wrinkles. Furthermore, Vitamin E removes free radicals from the skin making the skin to regenerate new cells which give the skin a lighter look. The absence of free radicals from the skin makes people have a healthier skin. The only negative impact of Vitamin E is when an overdose is taken. An overdose is dangerous because Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin which is difficult to excrete from the body. High dosage can cause diarrhea, stomach cramps, fatigue, weakness, rashes, blurred vision. This also increases chances of prostate cancer in some men.

That aside, it is also an obvious truth that some herbal and chemical whiteners can under stimulate melanocytes. This may render them inactive, leading to white scars. Both chemical and herbal whiteners may fail significantly to stimulate melanocytes. Melanocyte generating hormones are hormones which cause the increase in production of melanocytes. They cause an increase in melanin pigment. Melanocyte contains the cellular components for manufacturing melanin. The melanocyte is also a neuroectodermally derived cell that is a core ingredient in the production of melanin. Dark skin is a result of more melanocytes. Skin whiteners are therefore aimed at reducing the melanocytes in the body in their quest to achieve a lighter skin color. Therefore lightening the skin works with a rationale for significantly reducing production of melanocytes in the body. 

Skin whitening chemicals work in bleaching the skin. There is a great need for minimal melanogenesis suppression and disturbance.  Skin whitening substances work by reducing the content of melanin on the surface. Skin whitening substances may contain dangerous components like mercury. As mercury is well known heavy metal, it may lead to hazardous health conditions like cancer. Mercury is extremely toxic and poisonous and may lead to different health risks ranging from kidney damage to skin damage. Skin whiteners should be taken with great caution since some have poisonous chemical substances which will cause more harm than good to users. Melanogenesis is the process of reproducing melanin in the cells and is important. Skin whiteners affect the production of melanin affecting the normality of the body functions, especially in the skin functions.

Most importantly, tyrosine involvement in melanin production is key in whitening the skin. Even though some chemicals from herbs and chemicals found in scar products inhibit tyrosine greatly.  Tyrosine is responsible for oxidative procedures in the synthesis of melanin. It is melanin that gives the skin color. The darker the skin, the more the melanin. It is therefore attributed to being the reason why black people have a dark color due to the sufficiency of melanin. Mostly, lotions and gels are used as skin lighteners. Such skin lightening components are envisaged at blocking some amount of melanin. Skin lighteners affect the production of melanin by blocking and inhibiting tyrosine. As tyrosine is responsible for producing melanocyte, use of skin lighteners change it leading to a reduction in the produced melanin.

In conclusion, skin whitening and bleaching which is greatly pursued by a large number of people in the modern world has numerous effects that may lead to life-long health hazards. As a warning, people should be advised against not using all means to improve their looks whereas endangering their lives to greater threats to health(Lim et al.). Yes, some may argue that looks, smoother skin, supple skin are important. Undeniably, simple looks do matter, but it is not worth risking for what may end up causing greater danger to the health of individuals. Skin whiteners especially the chemical whiteners are to be refrained from entirely since the health of individuals is at stake. Even as a flawless and spotless face is sought, let it not be a motivation for the use of dangerous skin whiteners.

You know the risks. A poor diet packed with fat, sugar and salt leads to obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Would you wish that on your children and spouse? Of course not, and it should be enough reason to start eating balanced meals full of the fruits, veggies and protein that everyone needs to keep their bodies in form.

But there’s more to it. The way you eat, drink and love helps you cope with stress and anxiety plays an integral role in mental health. That means that a kid who grows up eating right and exercising will able to deal with any emotional trouble that life throws at them and with aplomb. Here are some ways you can give them that gift.

Lead by Example

They won’t eat healthy if you don’t. According to a pair of psychologists writing for Slate magazine, modeling the appropriate behavior has a much greater effect than simply telling your children what to do, and that can be a strong force for good if you’re willing to put down the bag of chips and eat a few carrot or celery spears yourself.

Teach Them, Too

They’ll be even more inclined to choose apples over cookies if you explain the basics of nutrition and how it affects their bodies. The key is giving them choices. For example, ask the little ones if they would like baby carrots or peas for dinner.

Shop Wisely

Shopping wisely begins before you even go to the store. Start by making a list that includes all the fruits, veggies, lean proteins and whole grains you need for the week, then have something to eat as you do not want to go by the snack aisle on an empty stomach and start straying from your plan. If you’re worried about temptation, stay near the perimeter of the store, as that’s where all of the whole foods are stored, chime in the folks at CookingLight.

Try New Recipes

So you’ve got the right meats and veggies, but do you know what to do with them? New recipes are a great way to sample exotic flavors while giving your healthy meal plan a kick in the butt. Chad, Greece and Israel boast some of the richest and leanest cuisines in the world, and they’re yours for the exploring if you want to serve up something exciting for your next family dinner.

Involve the Kids

You could use some help in the kitchen, and that’s a job for the little ones as they need to learn how to cook if they’re going to eat healthy as they grow older. It’s a crucial life skill that also helps in the development of fine motor skills through all that slicing, dicing and stirring. The best thing is, you’ll have no trouble convincing them to join you at the chopping board as there’s nothing else the little ones like more than playing adult.

Eat Together

You’ve cooked together, so enjoy the fruits of your labor together at the table. When they see you enjoying the soup or salad they helped make, it’ll encourage them to spend more time in the kitchen with you preparing healthy meals that have all the right stuff in terms of flavor and nutrients. Besides, it’s a great way for the family to spend time talking about their lives and catching up on their work and studies.

Make Healthy Snacks

Everyone needs something to nibble on from time to time. If you’re willing to put a little time into the preparation, you’ll find what you’re looking for by combining a few simple ingredients such as fruits, veggies, nuts and dairy to create delicious concoctions that add nothing to the waistline but keep your kids going throughout the day with plenty of energy.

With your guidance, the kids will develop healthy habits to last a lifetime and that means stronger bodies and minds so they can face any challenges in their studies or their work. It all begins in the kitchen.

Image via Pixabay.




Hypopigmentation is a condition that describes an abject absence of the ideal amounts of melanin (the chemical that gives color to the human skin). It is usually caused by a wide array of factors, ranging from disease and suffered injury to accidents, burns and any other trauma that the skin suffers.

The treatment of hypopigmentation can sometimes prove to be very tricky. There have been topical treatments developed that are capable of helping with the condition as well as light-based solutions such as IPL, excimer lasers, and the Fraxel Restore laser, all of which can also be used.

As stated earlier, the skin gets its color from the presence and action of melanin. The skin bells that produce melanin are known as melanocytes and when these cells experience a reduction in their production, hypopigmentation is the condition that results. In certain parts of the world, hypopigmentation is also known as skin depigmentation.

Hypopigmentation Causes

The most common and prevalent cause of hypopigmentation occurs when the patient suffers some sort of damage or trauma to their skin. Injuries such as burns, infections, pimples, blisters and scrapes (all of which are injuries that result in or involve scarring) can also lead to the discoloration of the skin (and as a result, hypopigmentation)

Hypopigmentation can also be caused by the use of improperly administered skin resurfacing treatments, such as Photofacials (IPL), laser peels, or chemical peels. When used or administered wrongly, these treatments can cause the skin to lose its color as well (or any other skin damage that causes hypopigmentation).


Allantoin is an active and highly effective moisturizing ingredient that can be found at the root of the Comfrey herb. Over the years, it has been found to possess certain therapeutic action that remotes the healing and development of the skin. Allantoin is used heavily due to the fact that it is safe and anti-irritant. However, it has also been known to stimulate the production and synthesis of melanin, therefore making it a perfect treatment method for hypopigmentation.


In order to treat hypopigmentation, research has shown that Allatoin is highly effective. As stated earlier, hypopigmentation is caused by a deficiency of melanin in the skin. Allatoin has a natural ability to synthesize melanin and by introducing it to the skin, more melanin is bound to be added to the skin, thereby combating hypopigmentation to a large degree.



There has been quite a lot of research that has gone into finding the general benefits of the compounds found in allantoin.

A few of them are:

Hydrating: Alantoin helps to increase the level of water in the skin and this makes it a perfect treatment for dry and scaly skin.

Desquamating: It also encourages the natural exfoliation in the stratum corneum (the skin’s outermost layer)

Repairing: Allantoin is famous around the world for its natural ability to enhance the proliferation of the cell, thereby encouraging the growth of new and fresh tissue.

Allantoin has also been known to heal wounds effectively and research has shown that it can clear away necrotic tissue, paving the way for the development of new and healthy tissue.

Healing: Allantoin is an active skin protector and it also bolsters the healing process of the skin. This quality makes it a perfect treatment for skin injuries, scars and irritations.

Relieves dryness: Allantoin enhances the regeneration of the skin by combating skin dryness and fixing an impaired barrier. By doing this, Allantoin has he ability to help soft and sensitive skin to become tougher and more resistant to injuries.

Protecting: As an ingredient, not only does Allantoin soften the skin, it also proves skin that is gapped and damaged by excessive exposure to rays of the sun. Studies have also shown that it is capable of protecting the skin from cell damaged induced by the sun’s dangerous ultraviolet rays.

Soothing: Allantoin is considered as a highly effective  anti-irritant, as it has the ability to calm and soothe inflamed skin. This is one of the reasons why it is used extensively in  baby products.

Free Radical Activity: When allied topically, Allantoin helps to greatly reduce the activity of free radicals on the skin.

Keratolytic action: In order to effectively perform its protective and regulatory functions, the epidermis (the outer layer of skin) produces an incredibly large amount of proteins and oils (known as lipids) that are naturally found in the stratum corneum.

This production process is known as keratinisation and it this process experiences a shift out of balance, the epidermis produces more keratin than usual (and more than which is needed) and as such, the structure of the barrier function is changed.

To treat this, Allantoin is effective in that it is able to interact with the keratin in the skin in order to thin out a thick and abnormal stratum corneum. This is usually why interaction with Allatoin usually leaves.the skin looking smooth and fine.



white scar

When the human body is exposed to an injury or accident, the skin begins a natural healing process to repair itself, quickly forming a new skin to protect the body against germs and bacteria, and by doing so often results to a scar. As the body’s natural way of responding to inflammation, most scars are red in color initially but as the healing process continues, the tissues sometimes turns to white which is known as hypopigmentation.

Changes in one’s skin color can be concerning from either a medical or cosmetic point of view, or both. The human skin obtains its coloration from biological pigments called melanin. Once the production of melanin becomes significantly high, it results to a pigmentation disorder called melanism. On the other hand, small amounts or no melanin at all causes the skin to become lighter, which is called hypopigmentation.


In simple terms, Hypopigmentation in the skin is as a result of a decrease in melanin production.

What Causes Hypopigmentation?

There are two vital components to the production of melanin: melanocytes and tyrosine.

The melanocyte cells are responsible for the production of melanin. Skin damages caused by injuries can harm the skin cells, and if these injuries go deep enough it damages the melanocyte cells which causes them not to function properly, and in turn reduces the amount of melanin produced. This results in a lighter patch of skin or white skin.

The degree of hypopigmentation varies from partial hypopigmentation as in case of skin injury to complete hypopigmentation as seen in vitiligo. It is usually a temporary sign of some disease process except in situations like albinism.

Common causes for hypopigmentation of the skin are:

  • Burns
  • Pityriasis alba
  • Trauma
  • Leprosy
  • Vitiligo
  • Albinism

Some conditions of hypopigmentation resolve when the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly while there is no cure for conditions like the albinism as it is a genetic condition.


Another common sign of hypopigmentation is vitiligo. This is a chronic dermatologic disorder that occurs when the cells responsible for skin pigmentation called “melanocytes” are destroyed which in turn causes de-pigmentation of patches of skin. These de-pigmented patches of skin vary differently in size and location from one person to another. Vitiligo are mostly common in areas the skin is exposed to the sun. Common affected areas include:

  • Around the nose
  • Around the eyes
  • Around the mouth
  • Armpits and groins
  • Navel

Statistics has shown that between 35 and 70 million people worldwide live with vitiligo.

Generally, signs of vitiligo begin to appear before the age of 20, but they can show up at any time.

Beneath the skin, vitiligo can be associated with a greater risk of certain medical issues like celiac diseases, Type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.

Causes of Vitiligo

The exact cause of vitiligo is still unknown. Scientists and doctors have theories about causes of this disorder. The most common form being an autoimmune disease, which means that a person’s own immune system accidentally attacks the skin pigment cells also known as melanocytes. And as a result can no longer produce pigments in normal amount, which then causes the skin to turn white (de-pigmentation).

Heredity may also be a factor as there are increased incidents of vitiligo in some families. Some believe single events such as sunburn or emotional distress triggers this condition. However, none of these theories has been proved to be a definite cause of vitiligo.

Signs and Symptoms of Vitiligo

Vitiligo usually occurs in childhood or early adulthood. It looks white, flat and does not have scaly spots. It starts with a spot which is slightly paler than the rest of the skin, as time passes it becomes paler until it turns white. Usually in children, it occasionally comes in form of a segmental pattern.

The effects of the disease varies. Some may experience little white dots that develop no further, while others develop larger white patches joining together to affect larger areas of skin.

It is difficult to tell how fast or how slow the patches will spread, and by how much. The spread might take weeks, or might remain stable for months or years.

Usually, the signs first shows on body parts that are exposed to the sun, such as the hands, feet, arms, face and lips.

Some of its signs include:

  • Whitening of the hair on your scalp, eyebrows or beard
  • Patchy loss of skin color

However, it does not cause any irritation, soreness, dryness or discomfort in the skin.

Treatments for Vilitigo

A number of remedies can help decrease the visibility of vitiligo.

Phototherapy with UVB light

If the white spots are present across large areas of the body, UVB phototherapy may be used. It involves full-body treatment and should be done in a hospital.

Combination of UVB phototherapy with other treatments can result to a positive effect on vitiligo. However, it should be clear the results are not totally predictable, and there is still no treatment that will fully re-pigment the skin.

Skin camouflage

A person with mild vitiligo can easily camouflage some of the white patches with colored, cosmetic creams and makeup. It is imperative that they select tones that best match their skin features.

Phototherapy with UVA light

Another form of treatment is UVA phototherapy. The patient will need to take a drug that increases the skin’s sensitivity to UV light. After which he follows series of treatments, with the affected areas exposed to high doses of UVA light.


Depigmentation is achieved by applying topicals such as mequinol, hydroquinone or monobenzone. This reduces the color of the skin in unaffected parts to match the whiter areas.

Long exposure to the sun must be avoided as this type of treatment can make the skin even more fragile. Depigmentation can last as much 12 to 14 months, depending on factors such as the depth of the original skin tone.

There are several other ways to treat vitiligo and they include:

  • Skin grafts
  • Tattooing
  • Topical corticosteroids
  • Using sunscreen
  • Psoralen

Re-pigmentation may take weeks, months or years, plus the results are usually partial rather than complete. After successful treatment, there is a chance the vitiligo may return in the future.

Other Causes of Hypopigmentation

Waardenburg syndrome

The waardenburg syndrome disease was named after Petrus Johannes Waardenburg, a Dutch ophthalmologist. It is an uncommon genetic condition with different symptoms but generally involves hearing loss, characteristic facial abnormalities and changes in skin, hair and eye pigmentation.

Genetic Disease

This type of disease is caused by error in gene or sometimes in the much larger groups of genes called chromosomes.


A rare genetic disorder characterized by patches of lack of pigmentation that involves the skin and the hair.

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis is a hereditary disorder with presence of benign, tumor-like nodules of the brain or mental retardation.



When it comes to sunscreen, there’s a wide array of products that you have to choose from. Keeping yourself from the direct effects of the sun is extremely important, especially if you’ve got injuries of scare.

Thankfully, there’s sunscreen to help you out.

Sunscreen products are divided into two broad categories: physical and chemical.   

Physical sunscreens are comprised of a wide array of active minerals, such as titanium oxide and zinc oxide. These minerals work by sitting directly on top of the skin in order to deflect and block the entrance of the damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun into the skin. Over the years, physical sunscreens have also come to be known as physical blockers.

On the other hand, chemical sunscreens (also known as chemical or organic absorbers) are those sunscreens which contain various organic and carbon-based compounds, such as octisalate, avobenzone, oxybenzone and octinoxate. Rather than deflect the sun’s rays from the skin, chemical sunscreens work by creating a chemical reaction that converts these rays into heat and then releasing the resultant heat from the skin.

So how do they compare with each other?

Pros of physical sunscreen:

  • Physical sunscreen offers protection against both UVA and UVB rays it’s got a naturally broad spectrum and as such, it is able to offer versatile and effective protection.
  • Physical sunscreen is also quick. As soon as you apply it, it begins to offer protection immediately.  You don’t have to wait a second.
  • Physical sunscreen also lasts much longer when in direct UV light. However, you should also know that when working and engaging in physical activities that can cause you to sweat (or get your skin wet, at the very least), it tends to last less long.
  • With physical sunscreen, you have a lesser chance of getting irritation on the skin. This basically means that physical sunscreen is the preferable choice for people who have sensitive skin.
  • Also, if you’re the type of person with heat-activated in (for instance, if you’re got redness or rosacea), it is recommended that you go for physical sunscreen due to the fact that it deflects the heat and energy given off from the sun, thereby leaving your skin free and devoid of heat residue.
  • Physical sunscreen has much better shelf life than chemical sunscreen
  • Physical sunscreen is less likely to be pore-clogging. This means it is also the preferred choice or people who have blemish-prone skin types.

Cons of physical sunscreen:

  • Physical sunscreen might also leave a white-like cast on your skin, so some formulas might not be compatible with darker skin tones
  • Under makeup, it might be too chalky
  • It can create an occlusive film, which will result in higher perspiration while you’re engaging in physical activities.
  • It can be thicker and as such, you’ll need more effort to rub it in.

Pros of chemical sunscreen:

  • Chemical sunscreen is thinner and you won’t need much effort to have it applied
  • Less amount of it is also required to offer protection from the sun
  • The formula is easier to add other treatment ingredients, so it could offer other skin benefits

Cons of chemical sunscreen:

  • It is possible for chemical sunscreen to cause an increase in the amount of brown spots on your body and discoloration due to a higher internal temperature of the skin. When skin is overheated, it can make brown spots worse. This is a major disadvantage of chemical sunscreen, actually.
  • Once applied, chemical sunscreen will still require about 20 minutes before is starts working.
  • With chemical sunscreen, you have a much higher chance of developing irritation and stinging. It is especially worse in the case of people who have dry skin and a damaged moisture barrier. This increased probability is due in no small part to the multiple ingredients that are combined in order to achieve the broad spectrum of protection from UVA and UVB rays.
  • If you’re a person with a sensitive skin type, you’ll find that the higher the SPF (such as various formulae of SPF 50 or higher), the higher the chances of you suffering skin irritation.
  • The protection offered by chemical sunscreen gets quickly used up, especially when in direct ultraviolet light. This means that for you to get fully protected, you need to reapply on a regular basis.
  • As stated earlier, chemical sunscreen changes UV rays into heat. This mean that for people with skin types that are prone to redness and rosacea, there is an increased chance of irritation. Excess heat can exaggerate flushing, thereby leaving the sin in a less-than-ideal state.
  • If you’ve got oily skin, chemical sunscreen also has the probability of clogging your sin pores.
  • If chemical sunscreen drips into your eyes from sweat or mixture with water, it can also cause stinging

With this, it’s pretty obvious that physical sunscreen tends to be more effective (although chemical sunscreen isn’t bad as well). Another fact to note is that physical sunscreen is not absorbed by the skin. This is a huge advantage as you don’t get any unwanted or potentially harmful substances in your body.

The Effects of Chemical Sunscreen on Wound and Scar Healing

Applying scar-friendly sunscreen is an awesome way to heal wounds or scars. However, make sure to be careful. SPFs of 30 or more work best, and many products offer SPFs of 50-150. This is one reason why chemical sunscreen might not be the best or wounds as many of the chemicals that comprise it might have irritation and stinging effects which could trigger allergic reactions and exaggerate the wound as well. For better sunscreen performance, go for physical sunscreen with zinc oxide. Zinc oxide has been known to have awesome healing properties and it could help your wound or scar as well.


red scars

Usually people do not focus on scars unless these scars are red and itchy. This happens when skin starts to heal and it’s perfectly normal. You don’t need to worry about such scars. But sometimes it can cause infection so you need to take care of differences of redness of scars. In general view, when blood vessels bring the blood into the affected area, it seems to be reddish because without proper circulation of blood, scars would not heal. Scars may also turn to be warm as the blood flown in to the infected area.

Injury and Inflammation

When new blood vessels begin to grow around the infected wound, it may also be a cause of redness of scars. These new vessels are vital for nourishment of tissues that result in the production of new fresh skin. These new vessels generate more blood flow than usual so this type of redness in no issue.

Pale scars or Darkened skin are difficult to treat viably. This redness of scars shows up along these lines because of over melanin generation. What is the reason behind this redness? scar tissue has less melanocytes, which make melanin, at that point typical skin. Red scarring happens in light of the fact that melanocyte generation in the harmed zone of the skin has been debilitated. In the event that an injury includes a slash that is something other than a shallow entrance of the skin, a large portion of the shade creating layers of the upper skin here would be harmed.

This requires the more profound layers of the skin underneath the injury to repair the harmed tissue. To begin the dermal repair process, the skin knits together collagen and elastin to construct new tissues and ensure veins underneath the harmed region. On the off chance that any vein harm happened, expanded measures of aggravation would go with the injury mending process. At the point when this happens, intemperate scarring, which is a mellow type of fibrosis, may happen as a result of the expanded skin harm and irritation.

Over melanin production

Regardless of whether you have a noticeable new or old scar, your first sense might be to sit in the sun to “even out” its shading, or attempt to “camouflage it” with a tan. Amusingly, sun presentation is the exact opposite thing your scar needs. Scars require extra care from sun’s UV rays as these scars are very sensitive to sun burn. Sun’s UV rays can cause the scars to turn red and more noticeable. Sun’s exposure not only causes the redness of scars but also it is the main cause of thickness of tissues and these thickened tissues can make a scar more clear and hard to treat in future. Cosmetic products that have melanin stimulating ingredients can also be the major cause of redness of scars as they can also disrupt the healing process of skin and can make the redness last longer than usual. Hyperpigmentation is more common after application of chemicals or cosmetics products on scars.

Sunblock-Best Option

No. Never specifically open your scar to sunlight. Ensure your scar is extremely shielded from sunlight when you go outside or sunbathe. This applies to a wide range of scars. Particularly old, extensive and extreme scars should be taken care of. As scars coming about because of an accident, surgery or consume wounds.

Alongside causing scar staining, sunlight additionally bargains the generation of collagen on scarred skin. The absolute most imperative factor for scar mending is to utilize sunscreen for scars to shield it from UV introduction, which causes aggravation and free radical development. This irritation disturbs the arrangement of new collagen and undermines the ordinary recuperating process.


ginger rootThere is no denying that vitamins play a vital role when it comes to skin care. Vitamins A and E are critical factors when it comes to your skin’s well-being.  Vitamin A helps decrease the effects of sun damage, which dries skin out and also reduces its elasticity.  Vitamin E helps improve dry or rough skin; such as skin damaged from the sun’s harmful UV rays.  Both vitamins can be found in topical and oral supplements, however it is important to know that oral regimes are far more successful in delivering these fat soluble vitamins where it matters as opposed to rubbing the vitamins on your skin.

Vitamin A which contains fat-soluble retinoids plays an important role in skin health. Vitamin A can help you to get a better eyesight as well. It is critical for regulating enzymes, encouraging the immune system and generating red blood cells. 


Oral or Topical Treatment?

In oral treatment, you have to eat vitamins in the form of capsules or tablets. You can take Vitamin A or E capsules to eliminate the deficiency of these vitamins from your body. Many skin care experts would argue that oral treatment is the only worthy option.

Topical application has been shown to be ineffective in delivering Vitamin E to the skin. It is poorly absorbed and utilized. Vitamin E, when taken orally is better suited for deficiencies and provides greater benefits to the skin.


ginger rootEssential Benefits of Ginger Root

Ginger roots can reduce the unsightly appearance of white scars on your skin to a very significant extent. This fantastic root is known for its toning, antioxidant and aphrodisiac properties, which effectively contribute to a glowing and radiant skin. Aside from its benefits in reducing the appearance of white scars on your skin, it also nourishes and softens skin, allowing you to have a more beautiful and younger skin without spending a fortune.

There are numerous ginger root benefits that are least known in society beyond Asia. China has known the magic of ginger root for centuries and many people today still use its power.

Ginger removes skin toxins and stimulates the circulation that result in the delivery of more minerals and nutrients to the skin. It also improved elasticity, which makes your skin more youthful and firm.

Some may think that removing white scars on their skin is a very painful and expensive process. The great news is that with ginger for hypopigmentation, scar treatment becomes easier, natural and cheap. Ginger for white scars is completely harmless.

When it come to using ginger to resolve hypopigmentation, make sure to wash the ginger root before you cut thin slices. This type of treatment might be slower than the laser or surgical treatments but it is natural and safe. You do not have to worry about any side effect because the only result you will get is an improved skin color.

If you want to avoid the hassle of buying fresh Ginger Root and slicing it to apply on your skin every day, you can seek out Hypophil Scar & Discoloration Aid which has fresh Ginger Juice as one of it’s main ingredients.